During the 1970s there was an increasing awareness of the effects of various social, technological, and environmental pressures on organizational and personnel practices which resulted in a shift from mere supply-demand balancing or quantitative forecasting (manpower planning) toward a more comprehensive, future-oriented, integrative approach to personnel planning which is currently represented in a number of human resource planning models (human resource planning.
In recent years there have been a number of attempts to integrate heuristic, theory-based, and technique-oriented models. However, the systems analysis framework appears to hold the greatest promise as a basis for the integration of most HRP models into the open system model used by an organizational unit. Pressures for Comprehensive Human Resource Planning Human resource planning models encompass the whole range of societal, demographic, economic and government regulatory factors that influence change in the present and future workforce.
The following pressures are but a few of the many influences which demand a broader, more comprehensive approach, and more strategic orientation to the management of human resources:
1. Increasing international competition has refocused efforts on productivity improvement. Quality circles and quality of work-life programs are two examples of recent efforts to compete with foreign markets.
2. Increasing complexity and size of organizations has created a need to utilize new models and technologies that reduce the multiple layers of bureaucracy and bring decision-making processes down to the lower levels of the organization, thereby increasing employee commitment and ability to work more effectively.
3. Slower economic growth and rising inflation have placed tremendous pressure on organizations related to retirement patterns, benefit levels, and funding mechanisms. Growing concern regarding compensation practices has directed inordinate attention to the management of human resources. 4. Changing demographic patterns and changing composition of the workforce have caused corporations to re-examine their HRM policies and practices.
5. Greater government involvement in human resource practice continues to increase and the future promises greater pressure for educational assistance as growing numbers of employees participate in lifelong learning programs; amnesty legislation is likely for the growing influx of illegal aliens, and a variety of alternate hour legislation will be pressed to meet the needs of an increased number of working women.