Sample Research Paper
In 2006, Rudolf Bertagnoli and his team published a study investigating the effects of smoking on patients who have undergone Lumbar total disc arthroplasty. “Smoking has always been considered to a negative predictor for fusion surgery.” (Bertagnoli. R, 2006)
Not many studies have been undertaken to observe effects of smoking on the procedure of Total arthroplasty and the recovery afterwards in smoking and non-smoking patients. Some research suggests that smoking prevents or reduces the bones ability to grow into the prosthesis. Delay in recovery and decrease in overall success of the implantation procedure have also been blamed on smoking. (ProDisc Total Disc Replacement, 2008)
“The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in functional and disability outcomes within a period of two years minimum in smoking and nonsmoking patients who have undergone the artificial disc replacement therapy.” (Bertagnoli. R, 2006)
The Null hypothesis and the Alternate hypothesis proposed were as follows.
Null Hypothesis: Smoking has no detrimental effect on the success of artificial disc replacement (ADR).
Alternate Hypothesis: “Smoking has a detrimental effect on the success of artificial disc replacement (ADR).” (Bertagnoli. R, 2006)
A cohort study was conducted with an initial sample of 110 patients between March 2000 and April 2002. The inclusion criteria for the sampling included, smokers and non-smokers, age between 18-65 years, “disabling low back pain and some radicular pain secondary to single-level lumbar spondylosis” (Bertagnoli. R, 2006), patients undergoing minimum of 2 year follow-up and assessment, and lastly failure of medical treatment. They excluded “patients with spinal stenosis, osteoporosis, prior fusion surgery, chronic infections, metal allergies, facet arthrosis, inadequate vertebral endplate size, more than one level of spondylosis, neuromuscular disease, pregnancy, Workers’ Compensation, spinal litigation, body mass index greater than 35, and/or any isthmic.” (Bertagnoli. R, 2006)
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