Sample Research Paper
Cardiovascular disease is a broad term used to refer to any and all diseases related to the vascular system or the cardiac muscle. These include diseases include coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), Hypertension, rheumatic disease of the heart, congenital diseases, congestive cardiac failure etc.“Atherosclerosis is the root cause of the biggest killer of the21st century.” According to the WHO estimates of 2003, more than 16 million people died from cardiovascular diseases. (www.who.int ). InUK alone, more than 200,000 deaths were related to cardiovascular diseases. (British heart foundation- coronary artery disease statistics, 2006 edition).
InEnglandaccording to the 2006 health survey, more than 13.6% males and more than 13% females are suffering from some sort of cardiovascular disease and more than 24% of males, as well as, females are currently classified as obese. (Health Survey for England 2006: CVD and risk factors adults, obesity and risk factors children, 2008).
Most of the cardiovascular diseases originate from the same underlying anomaly and that is atherosclerosis. It is the deposition of fat and related compounds in the walls of the vessels which eventually get occluded.
“Mechanisms contributing to atherogenesis are multiple and complex. A number of theories—including the role of dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation and infection by certain pathogens—havebeen propounded from time to time explain this complex phenomenon.Recently it has been suggested that atherosclerosis is a multi-factorial,multi-step disease that involves chronic inflammation at every step, from initiation to progression, and that all the risk factors contribute to pathogenesis by aggravating the underlying inflammatory process. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis will aid in devising pharmaceutical and lifestyle modifications for reducing mortality resulting from coronary artery disease (CAD)” (Mallika V, 2007).
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