Sample Research Paper

“The Viewing Wand (ISG Technologies, Mississauga, Ontario) mainly  consists of a position-sensitive mechanical measuring arm with a localizing stylus of varying shapes at the end. The arm has  6 degrees of freedom and can be moved inside the operating field”. (Andreas, 2000)“The joints’ positions are converted to position and orientation in space, which are shown as crosshairs in the preoperative CT/MR images. This allows searching of preplanned paths or identification of anatomical structures during surgery.( Sandeman, 1994.,“To improve functionality further tools have been added to the existing system,( Freysinger, 1997., Gunkel, 1997) thus providing straight and bent probes,suction devices, power instrumentation, needles, cannula, etc.Other than for ear, nose, and throat surgery, we have successfully used this system for interstitial brachytherapy to place hollow radiation in optimal preplanned positions inside inoperable tumor masses of the head and neck region.( Auer, 1998)

These systems (Philips Easy Guide [Philips,Eindhoven, the Netherlands], Zeiss STN [Carl Zeiss], and ISG/ELEKTA free-hand [ELEKTA,Stockholm,Sweden]) use pointers that are equipped with infrared light-emitting diodes. The position and orientation of the light-emitting diodes are detected with 2 or 3 infrared cameras close to the operative field, and the position of the probe is indicated as crosshairs in the 3-D data sets. These systems require stable intraoperative patient fixation, and the registration procedures are nearly identical”. (Andreas, 2000) These systems have also been mainly used for head and neck minimal invasive surgeries like procedures to the petrous bone, frontal skull base, and paranasal sinuses.

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