Sample Research Paper
Oil flow through pipelines is in a continuous and comparatively stable environment compared to other shipment alternatives. “Oil pipelines are either steel or plastic have a range in various sizes. Pipelines range in size from ½” to 48” in diameter and include both above ground and below ground systems.”
“Pipelines can range up to 36 inches (92cm) in diameter and even larger, with some of the largest pipelines carrying more than one million barrels of oil daily.” As the oil trading has the largest impact on the economy of any country, an essential factor in determining the mode of transport are the associated costs and as well as the time to delivery.
“Strategic planning involves determining the shortest and most economical routes where they are built, the number of pumping stations and natural gas compression stations along the line, and terminal storage facilities so that oil from almost any field can be shipped to any refinery on demand.” Petroleum products are the best or most favorable resources to flow through pipelines in the United States in order to maximize optimization in terms of revenue and market value.
The trend for domestic refining capacity is to become more concentrated in regional centers and for imports of petroleum products to grow, reaching 6.7 million barrels per day in 2025 versus 1.4 million barrels per day in 2002. Those factors, including declines in inland crude production and the number of small inland refiners, will provide the impetus for expanding the network of product pipelines. (Rabinow, p. 13)
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