Sample Research Paper

Culture can be explained as a collection of lifestyle, values, ethical and moral standard, belief systems, language, style of interaction and thinking patterns which are developed by a social order to make sure that this prevails in certain physical and human conditions. (Pusch, 1979). Culture can be divided into implicit and explicit elements (Hofstede et al., 1990).

Implicit elements include the basic assumptions, the basic belief system and the core culture while explicit elements are represented by behaviour patterns, traditional customs and the language. National cultures are formed on the basis of geographic location, while organizational culture has a different set of variables like the structure of an organization, and management practices lead to a pattern of behaviour which represents this unit (Hofstede, 1994; Schein, 1985).

According to Fernandez (1988), culture shock

“includes all those beliefs and expectations about how people should speak and act; the social structure and organization; the relationship and rules that govern kinship systems; one’s ethnicity; one’s socioeconomic status; and the ideals, customs, and learned behaviour that have become second nature to a person (158).”

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